This book provides an introduction to the valuation of financial instruments on equity markets. Written from the perspective of trading, risk management and quantitative research functions and written by a practitioner with many years' experience in markets and in academia, it provides a valuable learning tool for students and new entrants to these markets.Coverage includes:·Trading and sources of risk, including credit and counterparty risk, market and model risks, settlement and Herstatt risks.·Numerical methods including discrete-time methods, finite different methods, binomial models and Monte Carlo simulations.·Probability theory and stochastic processes from the financial modeling perspective, including probability spaces, sigma algebras, measures and filtrations.·Continuous time models such as Black-Scholes-Merton, Delta-hedging and Delta-Gamma-hedging, general diffusion models and how to solve Partial Differential Equation using the Feynmann-Kac representation.·The trading, structuring and hedging several kinds of exotic options, including: Binary/Digital options, Barrier options, Lookbacks, Asian options, Chooses, Forward options, Ratchets, Compounded options, Basket options, Exchange and Currency-linked options, Pay later options and Quantos.·A detailed explanation of how to construct synthetic instruments and strategies for different market conditions, discussing more than 30 different option strategies.With source code for many of the models featured in the book provided and extensive examples and illustrations throughout, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to this topic and will prove an invaluable learning tool and reference for anyone studying or working in this field.
Analytical Finance is a comprehensive introduction to the financial engineering of equity and interest rate instruments for financial markets. Developed from notes from the author's many years in quantitative risk management and modeling roles, and then for the Financial Engineering course at Mälardalen University, it provides exhaustive coverage of vanilla and exotic mathematical finance applications for trading and risk management, combining rigorous theory with real market application.Coverage includes: - Date arithmetic's, quote types of interest rate instruments - The interbank market and reference rates, including negative rates - Valuation and modeling of IR instruments, bonds, FRN, FRA, forwards, futures, swaps, CDS, caps/floors and others - Bootstrapping and how to create interest rate curves from prices of traded instruments - Risk measures of IR instruments - Option Adjusted Spread and embedded options - The term structure equation, martingale measures and stochastic processes of interest rates, Vasicek, Ho-Lee, Hull-While, CIR - Numerical models, Black-Derman-Toy and forward induction using Arrow-Debreu prices and Newton-Raphson in 2 dimension - The Heath-Jarrow-Morton framework - Forward measures and general option pricing models - Black log-normal and, normal model for derivatives, market models and managing exotics instruments - Pricing before and after the financial crisis, collateral discounting, multiple curve framework, cheapest-to-deliver curves, CVA, DVA and FVA
Learn how C++ is used in the development of solutions for options and derivatives trading in the financial industry. As an important part of the financial industry, options and derivatives trading has become increasingly sophisticated. Advanced trading techniques using financial derivatives have been used at banks, hedge funds, and pension funds. Because of stringent performance characteristics, most of these trading systems are developed using C++ as the main implementation language.Options and Derivatives Programming in C++ covers features that are frequently used to write financial software for options and derivatives, including the STL, templates, functional programming, and support for numerical libraries. New features introduced in the C++11 and C++14 standard are also covered: lambda functions, automatic type detection, custom literals, and improved initialization strategies for C++ objects.Readers will enjoy the how-to examples covering all the major tools and concepts used to build working solutions for quantitative finance. It includes advanced C++ concepts as well as the basic building libraries used by modern C++ developers, such as the STL and Boost, while also leveraging knowledge of object-oriented and template-based programming. Options and Derivatives Programming in C++ provides a great value for readers who are trying to use their current programming knowledge in order to become proficient in the style of programming used in large banks, hedge funds, and other investment institutions. The topics covered in the book are introduced in a logical and structured way and even novice programmers will be able to absorb the most important topics and competencies.What You Will Learn Grasp the fundamental problems in options and derivatives trading Converse intelligently about credit default swaps, Forex derivatives, and more Implement valuation models and trading strategies Build pricing algorithms around the Black-Sholes Model, and also using the Binomial and Differential Equations methods Run quantitative finance algorithms using linear algebra techniques Recognize and apply the most common design patterns used in options trading Save time by using the latest C++ features such as the STL and the Boost libraries Who This Book Is ForProfessional developers who have some experience with the C++ language and would like to leverage that knowledge into financial software development. This book is written with the goal of reaching readers who need a concise, algorithms-based book, providing basic information through well-targeted examples and ready to use solutions. Readers will be able to directly apply the concepts and sample code to some of the most common problems faced in the analysis of options and derivative contracts.
Written by leading market risk academic, Professor Carol Alexander, Pricing, Hedging and Trading Financial Instruments forms part three of the Market Risk Analysis four volume set. This book is an in-depth, practical and accessible guide to the models that are used for pricing and the strategies that are used for hedging financial instruments, and to the markets in which they trade. It provides a comprehensive, rigorous and accessible introduction to bonds, swaps, futures and forwards and options, including variance swaps, volatility indices and their futures and options, to stochastic volatility models and to modelling the implied and local volatility surfaces. All together, the MARKET RISK ANALYSIS four volume set illustrates virtually every concept or formula with a practical, numerical example or a longer, empirical case study. Across all four volumes there are approximately 300 numerical and empirical examples, 400 graphs and figures 30 case studies many of which are contained in interactive Excel spreadsheets available from the accompanying CD-ROM. In this volume alone there are over 200 spreadsheets in 25 workbooks. Here are just some of he illustrative empirical examples and case studies in this volume: * Duration-Convexity approximation to bond portfolios, and portfolio immunization; * Pricing floaters and vanilla, basis and variance swaps; * Coupon stripping and yield curve fitting; * Proxy hedging, and hedging international securities and energy futures portfolios; * Pricing models for European exotics, including barriers, Asians, look-backs, choosers, capped, contingent, power, quanto, compo, exchange, 'best-of' and spread options; * Libor model calibration; * Dynamic models for implied volatility based on principal component analysis; * Calibration of stochastic volatility models (Matlab code); * Simulations from stochastic volatility and jump models; * Duration, PV01 and volatility invariant cash flow mappings; * Delta-gamma-theta-vega mappings for options portfolios; * Volatility beta mapping to volatility indices.
This book covers foreign exchange options from the point of view of the finance practitioner. It contains everything a quant or trader working in a bank or hedge fund would need to know about the mathematics of foreign exchange--not just the theoretical mathematics covered in other books but also comprehensive coverage of implementation, pricing and calibration. With content developed with input from traders and with examples using real-world data, this book introduces many of the more commonly requested products from FX options trading desks, together with the models that capture the risk characteristics necessary to price these products accurately. Crucially, this book describes the numerical methods required for calibration of these models - an area often neglected in the literature, which is nevertheless of paramount importance in practice. Thorough treatment is given in one unified text to the following features: * Correct market conventions for FX volatility surface construction * Adjustment for settlement and delayed delivery of options * Pricing of vanillas and barrier options under the volatility smile * Barrier bending for limiting barrier discontinuity risk near expiry * Industry strength partial differential equations in one and several spatial variables using finite differences on nonuniform grids * Fourier transform methods for pricing European options using characteristic functions * Stochastic and local volatility models, and a mixed stochastic/local volatility model * Three-factor long-dated FX model * Numerical calibration techniques for all the models in this work * The augmented state variable approach for pricing strongly path-dependent options using either partial differential equations or Monte Carlo simulation Connecting mathematically rigorous theory with practice, this is the essential guide to foreign exchange options in the context of the real financial marketplace. Table of Contents Mathematical Preliminaries Deltas and Market Conventions Volatility Surface Construction Local Volatility and Implied Volatility Stochastic Volatility Numerical Methods for Pricing and Calibration First Generation Exotics - Binary and Barrier Options Second Generation Exotics Multicurrency Options Long-dated FX Options
The three volumes of Interest Rate Modeling present a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of techniques and models used in the pricing and risk management of fixed income securities. Written by two leading practitioners and seasoned industry veterans, this unique series combines finance theory, numerical methods, and approximation techniques to provide the reader with an integrated approach to the process of designing and implementing industrial-strength models for fixed income security valuation and hedging. Aiming to bridge the gap between advanced theoretical models and real-life trading applications, the pragmatic, yet rigorous, approach taken in this book will appeal to students, academics, and professionals working in quantitative finance. The first half of Volume III contains a detailed study of several classes of fixed income securities, ranging from simple vanilla options to highly exotic cancelable and path-dependent derivatives. The analysis is done in product-specific fashion covering, among other subjects, risk characterization, calibration strategies, and valuation methods. In its second half, Volume III studies the general topic of derivative portfolio risk management, with a particular emphasis on the challenging problem of computing smooth price sensitivities to market input perturbations.
Reflecting the fast pace and ever-evolving nature of the financial industry, the Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance details how high-frequency analysis presents new systematic approaches to implementing quantitative activities with high-frequency financial data. Introducing new and established mathematical foundations necessary to analyze realistic market models and scenarios, the handbook begins with a presentation of the dynamics and complexity of futures and derivatives markets as well as a portfolio optimization problem using quantum computers. Subsequently, the handbook addresses estimating complex model parameters using high-frequency data. Finally, the handbook focuses on the links between models used in financial markets and models used in other research areas such as geophysics, fossil records, and earthquake studies. The Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance also features: * Contributions by well-known experts within the academic, industrial, and regulatory fields * A well-structured outline on the various data analysis methodologies used to identify new trading opportunities * Newly emerging quantitative tools that address growing concerns relating to high-frequency data such as stochastic volatility and volatility tracking; stochastic jump processes for limit-order books and broader market indicators; and options markets * Practical applications using real-world data to help readers better understand the presented material The Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance is an excellent reference for professionals in the fields of business, applied statistics, econometrics, and financial engineering. The handbook is also a good supplement for graduate and MBA-level courses on quantitative finance, volatility, and financial econometrics. Ionut Florescu, PhD, is Research Associate Professor in Financial Engineering and Director of the Hanlon Financial Systems Laboratory at Stevens Institute of Technology. His research interests include stochastic volatility, stochastic partial differential equations, Monte Carlo Methods, and numerical methods for stochastic processes. Dr. Florescu is the author of Probability and Stochastic Processes, the coauthor of Handbook of Probability, and the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, all published by Wiley. Maria C. Mariani, PhD, is Shigeko K. Chan Distinguished Professor in Mathematical Sciences and Chair of the Department of Mathematical Sciences at The University of Texas at El Paso. Her research interests include mathematical finance, applied mathematics, geophysics, nonlinear and stochastic partial differential equations and numerical methods. Dr. Mariani is the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, also published by Wiley. H. Eugene Stanley, PhD, is William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor at Boston University. Stanley is one of the key founders of the new interdisciplinary field of econophysics, and has an ISI Hirsch index H=128 based on more than 1200 papers. In 2004 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Frederi G. Viens, PhD, is Professor of Statistics and Mathematics and Director of the Computational Finance Program at Purdue University. He holds more than two dozen local, regional, and national awards and he travels extensively on a world-wide basis to deliver lectures on his research interests, which range from quantitative finance to climate science and agricultural economics. A Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics Statistics, Dr. Viens is the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, also published by Wiley.
An Introduction to international capital markets, Second edition Products, Strategies, Participants Andrew Chisholm 'Clear, comprehensive and with many practical examples and case studies. An invaluable guide to the modern international capital markets and to the key products and techniques used in the industry.' --Sir George Mathewson CBE, DUniv, LLD, FRSE, FCIBS. Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers in Scotland and Former Chairman of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc. Fully revised and updated from the hugely popular first edition, this book is an accessible and convenient one-volume introduction to international capital markets, ideal for those entering or planning to enter investment banking or asset management. As well as serving as an invaluable reference tool for professionals already working in the industry looking to extend their knowledge base it will also benefit all those working in trading, sales and support roles. Describing how the key products and markets work, who the principle participants are and their overall goals and objectives, Andrew Chisholm provides a thorough overview of the global capital markets. The book covers a wide range of equity, debt, foreign exchange and credit instruments as well as the principal derivative products. In a step-by-step fashion, making extensive use of real world cases and examples, it explains money markets, foreign exchange, bond markets, cash equity markets, equity valuation techniques, swaps, forwards, futures, credit derivatives, options, option risk management and convertible bonds. An extensive glossary also explains concisely many of the 'jargon' expressions used in the financial markets. Boasting an international focus, examples are drawn from major international markets around the world. It makes extensive use of numerical examples and case studies to help explain a wide range of cash and derivative products used in the capital markets business. It covers both debt and equity products and includes new material on credit products such as collateralized debt obligations and credit derivative structures; equity fundamental analysis, portfolio theory and convertible bonds. Market data has been fully updated from the first edition and recent events such as the 'credit crisis' are discussed.
'Richard Flavell has a strong theoretical perspective on swaps with considerable practical experience in the actual trading of these instruments. This rare combination makes this welcome updated second edition a useful reference work for market practitioners.' --Satyajit Das, author of Swaps and Financial Derivatives Library and Traders and Guns & Money: Knowns and Unknowns in the Dazzling World of Derivatives Fully revised and updated from the first edition, Swaps and Other Derivatives, Second Edition, provides a practical explanation of the pricing and evaluation of swaps and interest rate derivatives. Based on the author's extensive experience in derivatives and risk management, working as a financial engineer, consultant and trainer for a wide range of institutions across the world this book discusses in detail how many of the wide range of swaps and other derivatives, such as yield curve, index amortisers, inflation-linked, cross-market, volatility, diff and quanto diffs, are priced and hedged. It also describes the modelling of interest rate curves, and the derivation of implied discount factors from both interest rate swap curves, and cross-currency adjusted curves. There are detailed sections on the risk management of swap and option portfolios using both traditional approaches and also Value-at-Risk. Techniques are provided for the construction of dynamic and robust hedges, using ideas drawn from mathematical programming. This second edition has expanded sections on the credit derivatives market - its mechanics, how credit default swaps may be priced and hedged, and how default probabilities may be derived from a market strip. It also prices complex swaps with embedded options, such as range accruals, Bermudan swaptions and target accrual redemption notes, by constructing detailed numerical models such as interest rate trees and Libor-based simulation. There is also increased discussion around the modelling of volatility smiles and surfaces. The book is accompanied by a CD-ROM where all the models are replicated, enabling readers to implement the models in practice with the minimum of effort.